International Education Journal


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Teachers and their international relocation: The effect of self-esteem and pay satisfaction on adjustment and outcome variables 

Warnie Richardson 
Nipissing University, Ontario, Canada

Clement von Kirchenheim 
Cayman Islands Health Services Authority

Carole Richardson 
Nipissing University, Ontario, Canada


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This is the second of two papers investigating the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer. In the first paper we examined the effect of self-efficacy and flexibility within this adjustment process, revealing the significance of self-efficacy but failing to show a pronounced relationship between flexibility and adjustment (von Kirchenheim and Richardson, 2005). In this particular study, again based on existing literature, the value of self-esteem and pay satisfaction on the adjustment process was explored. Again, it was hypothesised that adjustment would result in reduced turnover intention, increased life satisfaction, and higher job satisfaction. Based on our findings, there would now appear to be some clear implications for individuals and organisations involved in the expatriation process. More specifically, from a personal point of view, there is evidence to suggest a direct relationship between specific personal characteristics, pay satisfaction, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. In essence, those who score high on scales which measure self-efficacy and pay satisfaction would appear to be the ones most likely to find success within the international relocation process. Thus, from an organisational perspective, the accurate measurement of some of these identified intrinsic and extrinsic factors may provide valuable information to the employer regarding those applicants that have the greatest probability of adjustment. Given that both studies looked exclusively at educators in its sampling, the implications for faculties of education, who are seeing increasing numbers of their graduates accept postings in foreign jurisdictions, are profound. 

Expatriate, adjustment, relocation, self esteem, pay satisfaction


 Richardson, W., von Kirchenheim, C. and Richardson, C. (2006). Teachers and their international relocation: The effect of self-esteem and pay satisfaction on adjustment and outcome variables. International Education Journal, 7 (7), 883-894.

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