International Education Journal

Educational Research Conference Workshop 2005 Special Issue


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Accountability of teachers and schools: A value-added approach

I Gusti Ngurah Darmawan 
School of Education, University of Adelaide

John P. Keeves 
School of Education, Flinders University



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Currently, there has been substantial interest, in Australia and internationally, in policy activities related to outcomes-based educational performance indicators and their link with growing demands for accountability of teachers and schools. In order to achieve a fair comparison between schools, it is commonly agreed that a correction should be made for lack of equity. It is argued that student performance is influenced by three general factors: the student background, classroom and school context, and identified school policies and practices. In this article the effects of these three factors on science achievement among students in Canberra, Australia have been addressed. The effects are discussed with reference to Type A, Type B, Type X, and Type Z effects. Type A effects are school effectiveness indicators controlled for student background. Type B school effects are controlled for both student background and context variables. Type X effects are estimated with student effects, context effects and non-malleable policy effects controlled for. Finally, Type Z effects invoke school effectiveness indicators, controlled for student, context, and all identified policy effects. 

Value-added, accountability, science achievement, social psychological measures, equity, school effectiveness indicators



Darmawan, I.G.N. and Keeves, J.P. (2006) Accountability of teachers and schools: A value-added approach. International Education Journal, 7 (2), 174-188.

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