International Education Journal


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Primary education in Vietnam: Extra classes and outcomes

Tran Thu Ha 
Research and Training Centre for Community Development, Vietnam 

Trudy Harpham 
London South Bank University, Great Britain


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Extra classes are increasingly observed in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, a country where education reforms are at their height, extra classes are proliferating and have become a concern to society and the government. Although the government has banned extra classes that are independent of school administration, teachers often run home-based classes to supplement their income. This paper examines the extent and characteristics of extra classes among eight-year-old children, and examines the association between taking extra classes and learning outcomes (numeracy, reading, and writing skills). 

Vietnam, primary education, extra class, learning outcomes


Ha, T.T. and Harpham, T. (2005) Primary education in Vietnam: Extra classes and outcomes. International Education Journal, 6 (5), 626-634.

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