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Primary education in Vietnam: Extra classes and outcomes


Tran Thu Ha 
Research and Training Centre for Community Development, Vietnam
hatran@rtccd.org.vn 

Trudy Harpham 
London South Bank University, Great Britain 
t.harpham@lsbu.ac.uk

 

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Abstract

Extra classes are increasingly observed in both developed and developing countries. In Vietnam, a country where education reforms are at their height, extra classes are proliferating and have become a concern to society and the government. Although the government has banned extra classes that are independent of school administration, teachers often run home-based classes to supplement their income. This paper examines the extent and characteristics of extra classes among eight-year-old children, and examines the association between taking extra classes and learning outcomes (numeracy, reading, and writing skills). 

Vietnam, primary education, extra class, learning outcomes

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Ha, T.T. and Harpham, T. (2005) Primary education in Vietnam: Extra classes and outcomes. International Education Journal, 6 (5), 626-634.
http://iej.cjb.net

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