International Education Journal


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Booni Valley women's perceptions of schooling: Hopes and barriers

Almina Pardhan 
Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development, Karachi, Pakistan


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This paper was edited by Dr B.M. Matthews to conform to the style of the International Education Journal


Schooling for girls is a relatively recent process in Booni Valley, a remote mountainous village in Chitral District, Pakistan. It is impacting greatly upon the lives of the women. This study has taken an ethnographic perspective and has assumed that an understanding of women's schooling requires a detailed, in-depth account of women's actual experiences in a specific cultural setting. The women in the study perceive their local language, Khowar, as having little value and place great importance upon learning Urdu and English, the official languages of Pakistan. The women also perceive schooling to increase their mobility and independence and to gain access to employment. However, gender structures are deeply rooted. The women encounter many barriers which restrict them from participating in many activities in the community.

Women, schooling, ethnographic research, Pakistan


 Pardhan, A. (2005) Booni Valley women's perceptions of schooling: Hopes and barriers. International Education Journal, 6 (4), 438-445.

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