International Education Journal


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Analysing education production in Malaysia using canonical correlation analysis

Noor Azina Ismail
University of Malaya

Ang Guat Cheng 
University of Malaya


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Data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study carried out in 1999 and canonical correlation analysis were used to investigate the effects of school inputs, environmental inputs and gender influence in the production of a joint educational production function in mathematics and science subjects for eighth grade students in Malaysia. School inputs include per pupil non-teaching expenditure, pupil teacher ratio, teaching experience and instructional hours. On the other hand, environmental inputs consist of home educational resources index and an out-of-school study time index. Gender influence is represented by the percentage of female students in a class. From the study, teaching experience can be dropped from the model because it does not give any additional explanatory power. Marginal products and marginal rates of substitution are calculated and it was found that schools with low-level out-of-school study time can compensate for these deficiencies by having extra instructional hours. 

Education production, canonical correlation analysis, marginal rates of substitution, marginal products, school achievement


Ismail, N.A. and Ang, A.G. (2005) Analysing education production in Malaysia using canonical correlation analysis. International Education Journal, 6 (3), 308-315.

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