International Education Journal


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Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

Bhawani Shankar Subedi
Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI), Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal

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The terms 'transfer of learning' and 'transfer of training' are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of development in the area of research on transfer of learning from the training environment to the workplace environment have been drawn together and summarised in this review to introduce this important area of human performance support.

Transfer of training is defined as the extent of retention and application of the knowledge, skills and attitudes from the training environment to the workplace environment. In other words, transfer of training is the degree to which trainees effectively apply the learning from a training context to the job.

The increased attention to the transfer problem in recent years has resulted in the production and use of significant literature and research outcomes from the contexts of modern workplaces that prevail in the industrialised nations of western culture. However, the amount of actual research on strategies to facilitate transfer of formal employee training is still limited.

In congruence with the definition and context of transfer of training in government and non-government organisations, this review focused on related literature and previous studies geared towards the process and strategies of facilitating the application of knowledge, skills, and attitudes from training to job. Existing literature and previous research relating to factors influencing transfer of training were found subsequently classified in three main clusters (a) trainee characteristics, (b) training design and delivery characteristics, and (c) organisational or workplace environment characteristics.

Transfer of training, transfer of learning, adult education, performance improvement, training effectiveness, transfer partnership, workplace



 Subedi, B.S. (2004) Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning. International Education Journal, 5 (4), 591-599.

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