Bhawani Shankar Subedi
Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI), Sanothimi,
The terms 'transfer
of learning' and 'transfer of training' are usually
found mutually exclusive in training and development
literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning
theories because most education and training aspires to
transfer. The end goals of training and education are not
achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of
development in the area of research on transfer of learning
from the training environment to the workplace environment
have been drawn together and summarised in this review to
introduce this important area of human performance support.
Transfer of training is
defined as the extent of retention and application of the
knowledge, skills and attitudes from the training environment
to the workplace environment. In other words, transfer of
training is the degree to which trainees effectively apply the
learning from a training context to the job.
The increased attention
to the transfer problem in recent years has resulted in the
production and use of significant literature and research
outcomes from the contexts of modern workplaces that prevail
in the industrialised nations of western culture. However, the
amount of actual research on strategies to facilitate transfer
of formal employee training is still limited.
In congruence with the
definition and context of transfer of training in government
and non-government organisations, this review focused on
related literature and previous studies geared towards the
process and strategies of facilitating the application of
knowledge, skills, and attitudes from training to job.
Existing literature and previous research relating to factors
influencing transfer of training were found subsequently
classified in three main clusters (a) trainee characteristics,
(b) training design and delivery characteristics, and (c)
organisational or workplace environment characteristics.
of training, transfer of learning, adult education,
performance improvement, training effectiveness, transfer