International Education Journal


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Learning in Schools: A Modelling Approach

Flinders University School of Education



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This article claims that constructivism is both incomplete and inadequate for the effective learning and teaching of mathematics and science at the upper secondary school level. The article briefly reviews the reforms that have occurred over the past 50 years on mathematics and science education from the perspectives provided by advances in knowledge on the physical and biological sciences, in developmental and cognitive psychology, in educational research and in the emerging field of neuroscience. It is argued that the finding from these many different fields of research must be brought together to advance learning through a modelling approach which requires that both individual and corporate knowledge must be tested not only for coherence, but also for adequacy against evidence obtained from the real world in which human beings are living and undertaking their inquiries.

Constructivism, social constructivism, cognitive development, hypothetico-deductive thinking, Piagetian theory, hypotheses testing, modelling, neuroscience, formal operational thinking, upper secondary schooling, learning in schools


Keeves, J. (2002) Learning in Schools: A Modelling Approach. International Education Journal, 3 (2), 114-125.

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