bullet Maslow
bullet Freud
bullet Erikson

 

Freudís Psychoanalytical Theory

Freud believed that all people go through five stages of psychosexual development, and that in each stage we experience pleasure in a certain part of the body 16. The stages include:

Stage

Developmental Period

Oral

Birth to 11/2 years

Anal

11/2 to 3 years

Phallic

3 to 6 years

Latency

6 years to Puberty

Genital

Puberty Onwards

Freud also believed that peopleís problems develop as a result of early experience and unresolved conflicts within the stages of psychosexual development16. Freudís theory is especially useful when considering the defense mechanisms of people with low self-esteem. Freud identifies 12 defense mechanisms that people with low self-esteem use when faced with specific situations24.

These mechanisms include:

 

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Compensation

Hiding negative self-concept or developing positive self-concept to make up for perceived negative self-concept.
E.g. Trying really hard at sport in order to make up for short comings in academic achievement.

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Denial

Pretending that your low-self-esteem does not exist

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Displacement

Expression of negative feelings towards others
E.g. Taking a bad mood out on undeserving others

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Identification

Identifying with others that have a good self-concept
E.g. Heroes. Sports stars, etc.

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Introjection

Acceptance of others standards in order to fit with their ideal of good self-concept/esteem.

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Projection

Attributing your own negative self-esteem to others

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Rationalisation

Highlighting the good points rather than the bad or vice versa.

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Reaction Formation

This is the process of developing conscious positive self-concepts in order to cover and hide opposite, negative self-concepts.

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Regression

Returning to an earlier stage in your development when you had better self-esteem.

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Repression

Involuntary removal of the self from your own negative self-esteem in order to tolerate it.

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Ritual and Undoing

Trying to undo negative self-esteem by performing behaviors that offset the behaviors that the negative ratings of you were based on.

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Sublimation

Changing your feelings about your negative self-concepts into more socially acceptable activities.