involvement - the greater a parents involvement with and
to their child the higher the levels of
warmth - also defined as unconditional positive
acceptance (Joseph:1994) is the ability to accept a
child's strengths and weaknesses. This acceptance is
'warm' in that it is balanced.
expectations - boundaries that are clear and firm without
being authoritarian help the child ascertain what
behaviours are acceptable and what are
- respect for one's children coupled with a democratic or
authoritative parenting style has the most positive
effect on self-esteem.
consistency - being consistent in the treatment of one's
children enhances self-esteem because it reinforces the
value of the child to the parent.
children - confident, capable individuals who believe
they can achieve generally have positive self-esteem
(Joseph:1994). Parents can empower children by fostering
responsibility for their feelings and
- children imitate what they see. Parents who face life's
challenges honestly and directly expose their children to
examples of problem-solving strategies which can enhance
thinking - a positive perspective helps us see the good
things in life rather than the bad, which helps foster a