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Three whaling stations on the west coast of South Australia - 

Fowlers Bay, Sleaford Bay and Streaky Bay
Mark Staniforth

INTRODUCTION

Historical documentary and/or archaeological evidence of a number of whaling stations on the South Australian coast and off-shore islands has previously been recorded (Hosking 1973; Kostaglou & McCarthy 1991; Austral Archaeology 1993) One of the problems with some of this previous work has been the failure to recognise that shore-based whaling activity in South Australia before 1850 consisted of two quite distinct types. The first type were those based in and associated with the official settlement of South Australia such as the whaling activities of the South Australian Company and Hagan & Hart; documentary records for these whaling stations are relatively plentiful and easily accessible in Adelaide (see Hosking 1973). The second, and far less well known or documented, type were the activities of some, apparently mainly, Hobart based whalers in a number of whaling stations on the far west coast of South Australia. Hobart based whalers who were active in at least three whaling stations on the west coast of South Australia at Fowlers Bay, St Peter's Island and Streaky Bay (Jones and Staniforth 1996). Therefore these whaling stations on the South Australian coast must be considered as an offshoot of the Hobart based whaling industry which has been partially documented in recent years (Chamberlain 1988; Evans 1993a & b; Kostaglou  1995a & b)

 Apparently the involvement of whaling parties from the Eastern colonies in South Australia is quite a different pattern to that which existed in Western Australia where Gibbs has claimed that the involvement of William Lovett, master of the barque Jess  (probably Captain W.H. Lovitt) of Hobart, with Thomas Booker Sheratt of Albany and Mr Dring of Perth in whaling around Albany in 1835 was the only 'clear case of eastern Australian investment in a Western Australian whaling party' (Gibbs 1995:55). It is also different to the situation which existed in the other state which shares a common border with South Australia - in Victoria the whaling industry appears to be mainly an offshoot of the relatively less well documented Launceston based whaling industry (Chamberlain 1989; Townrow 1997).

 This paper discusses the results of recent historical research and archaeological survey work on the Hobart based whaling stations at Fowlers Bay, Streaky Bay and Sleaford Bay, which was probably first a Hobart based and then later one of the Adelaide based whaling stations (see Fig 1).

FOWLERS BAY

Date Range: 
 

 1840 (American whaling vessels Marthaand Amazon)
 1843 & 1844 (Hobart based whaling station)


Location: 
 

 Telegraph office at Fowlers Bay
 Lat  39 degrees 59í 43" South Long  132 degrees 26í 39" East
 AMG: 257800E 6457500N (Zone 53 Map 5334)


Fowlers Bay is the furthest west populated coastal inlet in South Australia.

Map reference: 
 

 Coorabie  5334-2 (1:50,000 topographical map) 


History:

The 369 ton whaling ship Martha of New York under the command of Captain Hudson arrived at Fowlers Bay on 26 May 1840 from the west in company with the 318 ton American whaling ship Amazon from Fairhaven, Massachusetts under the command of Robert G. Smith. (Sexton 1990:57 & 64) The ships were at anchor in Fowlers Bay between 10 June and 28 August and finally departed on 10 September 1840. Records do not indicate how many whales were caught by the Martha but according to the ship's log of the Amazon  41 whales were killed on 22 of the 80 days while that the ship was at anchor:-
 

 33 Right Whales (including two "scrag" and 13 calves)
 8 Humpback Whales (including three calves) 
 (Bannister p. 258)


The term "scrag" whale was used to designate a Baleen whale of poor quality in this case a thin or young Right whale. 

 On 17 November 1840 the explorer Edward John Eyre and his party reached Fowler's Bay and found good water amongst the sandhills. Eyre established a depot at Fowlers Bay where he was supplied by the Government cutter Waterwitch  (1st voyage arrived at Fowlers Bay about 17 Nov 1840 and departed Fowlers Bay 27 Nov 1840. 2nd voyage arrived at Fowlers Bay 16 Dec 1840 and departed Fowlers Bay 18 Dec 1840) and subsequently by the cutter Hero  (1st voyage arrived at Fowlers Bay on 26 Jan 1841 and arrived back at Adelaide on 14 Feb 1841. 2nd voyage arrived at Fowlers Bay 24 Feb 1841 and arrived back at Adelaide on 6 March 1841).  Consequently Eyre was in the area for more than three months, until at least 25 February 1841, using it as the starting point for his attempt to overland to Western Australia and he provides us with the next description of the area:
 

 Upon walking round the shores of Fowler's Bay, I found them literally strewed in 
 all directions with the bones and carcases of whales, which had been taken here by 
 the American ship I saw at Port Lincoln, and had been washed ashore by the 
 waves. To judge from the great number of these remains, of which very many were 
 easily recognisable as being from those of distinct animals, the American must have 
 had a most fortunate and successful season.
 (Eyre 1845:227)


 The Martha had visited Port Lincoln about 22 September 1840 (where it was probably the vessel seen by Eyre). The Martha  arrived in Port Lincoln again on 9 September 1842 during a subsequent voyage this time with 1500 barrels of oil and it is possible that the vessel had visited or worked in the Fowlers Bay area during the 1842 season (Sexton 1990:85).

 At present we have no evidence about the presence of whalers at Fowlers Bay during the 1841 or 1842 seasons; though it is possible that American, French or colonial whalers may have spent part or all of either season at Fowlers Bay. Parsons quotes a report which said that in 1840 ëfour French and one American (whaler) fished between this (Port Lincoln) and Fowlers Bayí and that in 1841 six foreign whalers were reported in the same area (Parsons 1981:23).

In his unpublished reminiscences Captain Richard Copping made the following comments:-
 

 (1843) 'we now started for Fowlers Bay at the Head of the Great Australian Bight
 to whale for the winter' (Copping 1892:20)

 (winter 1843) 'here we took 70 tons of oil during four months' (Copping 1892:21)

 (winter 1844) 'headed for Fowlers Bay for winter...we moved as usual and 
 commenced whaling and secured about 90 tons ... We left again in September 
 (1844), the whales being all gone' (Copping 1892:22)


 According to Credland, in 1843  Richard Copping was a boatsteerer on board the brig Grecian  owned by Thomas Brown and commanded by Captain John Watson out of Hobart when they 
 

headed for Fowlers Bay at the head of the Great Australian Bight but had to take shelter in Refuge Cove in Bass Strait during a storm. Off Kangaroo Island (at the entrance to Gulf St. Vincent) another storm stove in the bulwarks and a boat was lost before finally reaching Fowlers Bay. Here the yards and topmasts were brought down to prepare for heavy weather as they intended wintering there. They took 70 tons of oil in four months and in September headed for Portland Bay... They brought home 1300 barrels collected in the space of twelve months and stayed at home for four weeks before setting sail again... As in the previous season they sailed to Fowlers Bay for the winter and then abandoned shore-based whaling in September and headed out to sea. They killed two sperm whales which Copping claims were the first ever caught in the Great Australian Bight... the Grecian eventually returned home with 1,200 barrels of oil.
 (Credland 1988:25-26) 


 Also in 1843 the Hobart whalers George Cummings and Richard Harris were reported by the South Australian Gazetteand Colonial Register to have made an overland journey from 'a whaling station at Fowlers Bay' to Port Lincoln. The report describes how 
 

On Saturday last it was stated in this journal that two whalers, just  arrived at Port Lincoln from Fowlers Bay...Richard Harris...in the end of August last, along, with his mate George Cummings performed the arduous journey from a whaling station at Fowlers Bay to Port Lincoln. Calculating the distance at two hundred miles, and that they would get supplied at Peters' Island and at Streaky Bay, where there were whaling stations, they took with them ten days provisions. At Peters' Island they got a chart of the coast, which was of the greatest service...(The three whaling stations mentioned above were occupied by parties from Hobart Town, from which our travellers had last come) 
 South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register 16 Dec 1843.


The 16 ton cutter Governor Gawler  is reported to have found the two men at Point Drummond and taken them to Port Lincoln after they had walked from the Fowlers Bay station via Streaky Bay during August (Sexton 1990:90).

Site Description:

Two distinct sites associated with whaling activity were investigated by Michael Jones and the author in 1994 as part of a project organised by the Australian and New Zealand Scientific Exploration Society (ANZSES) (Jones and Staniforth 1996). Another part of the overall project was conducted by Dr Kath Kemper of the SA Museum to collect whale bone for the Museum's comparative collection.

 The first area was on a sand spit in the south-west corner of Fowlers Bay where a large amount of whale bone was evident in and alongside a number of four wheel drive vehicle tracks. The interesting point about this area is that it appears that the original shoreline ran along approximately where the main four wheel drive track now runs and where the whale bone is concentrated. The sand spit has developed during this century as it does not appear on any of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century maps and charts of the Bay (see Fig.2). 

 The archaeological investigations undertaken consisted of a combination of site survey and recording of visible material and some test excavation to determine the geomorphology of the area as well as the nature and extent of sub-surface deposits. In addition to the open area excavations of the whale bone conducted by Kath Kemper the archaeology team limited its excavations to a series of 1 m square test pits to determine the stratigraphy and geological history of the sand spit area.

 Transects were conducted over the area to establish the extent and nature of the surface archaeological material in the general are where the whale bone was located. It was established that the whale bone was concentrated in a band approximately 15 m wide and 530 m long - 77 individual large bones or bone clusters were visible in this area. Subsequent excavation revealed that there was an enormous amount of bone buried in the area representing the remains of at least nine whales from the number of sculls alone - clearly the quantity and type of bone material indicated that this was the result of intensive whaling activity commensurate with the historical description by Eyre. It was also evident that the bone material was not spread evenly along the old shoreline but was to be found in clusters associated with one or more sculls suggesting that these were the remains of discrete individual whales and that the carcasses were articulated and relatively intact when they arrived on shore (as opposed to bones washing up from somewhere out in Fowlers Bay). Another fact revealed by the excavation work was that while the exposed bone was extremely weathered the buried bone was in an excellent state of preservation which suggests quick burial by sand soon after the bone were deposited on the beach.

 Transects were conducted over the area to establish the extent and nature of the surface archaeological material in the general are where the whale bone was located. It was established that the whale bone was concentrated in a band approximately 15 m wide and 530 m long - 77 individual large bones or bone clusters were visible in this area. Subsequent excavation revealed that there was an enormous amount of bone buried in the area representing the remains of at least nine whales from the number of sculls alone - clearly the quantity and type of bone material indicated that this was the result of intensive whaling activity commensurate with the historical description by Eyre. It was also evident that the bone material was not spread evenly along the old shoreline but was to be found in clusters associated with one or more sculls suggesting that these were the remains of discrete individual whales and that the carcasses were articulated and relatively intact when they arrived on shore (as opposed to bones washing up from somewhere out in Fowlers Bay). Another fact revealed by the excavation work was that while the exposed bone was extremely weathered the buried bone was in an excellent state of preservation which suggests quick burial by sand soon after the bone were deposited on the beach.

 No direct physical evidence of either the tryworks or habitation sites was found during the fieldwork. The only building structure located in the area was what appears to be a D shaped rock structure which may have functioned as a shelter / look-out at the far extremity of Point Fowler (see Fig. 3). Approximately 6 m by 6 m and constructed of blocks of dry laid semi dressed fine grained calcarenite (the local rock) the structure was built straight onto the limestone platform and stood no more than 1.1 m high. Most of the walls had at least partially collapsed and stood less than 1 m high (see Fig.4).

Artefacts:

Apart from the whale bone very little cultural material which could be linked to the whaling period was located during the fieldwork. Iron material including two large wrought iron spikes, a triangular shafted wrought iron rod and a scatter of iron were located - unfortunately no hoop iron was evident and consequently this iron material may or may relate to the whaling activity. A single fragmented three piece moulded porter type bottle was found in the four wheel drive track which may date to the whaling period.

Discussion:

It is considered likely that two types of whaling activity were conducted at Fowlers Bay. The first being associated with the American pelagic whaling vessels Martha and Amazon which Eyre suggests were present during the 1840 season. These vessels, and perhaps others both before and after, were either using the Bay simply for shelter or for conducting Bay whaling operations involving some shore based activity such as a look-out. Gibbs documents that the American whaler America  established a shore station in 1837 at Flinders Bay in Western Australia (Gibbs 1995:454 & 526). The second whaling activity at Fowlers Bay being that of a shore based whaling operation by Hobart based whalers during at least the 1843 and 1844 seasons. The whale bone concentration on the sand spit is assumed to be the result of this whaling activity and that the shelter/look-out was associated with the whaling activity but at this stage it is impossible to judge whether the existing archaeological material is from the first or second phases (or indeed both phases).
 

SLEAFORD BAY (also known as Fishery Bay)

Date Range:
 

 1837    (Hobart based whaling station)
 1839-1841  (Adelaide based whaling station)
 1842   (British whaling vessel Frances)


Location:
 

Blue Lands and Survey Marker  (riser)at Fishery Bay, Sleaford Bay 
 Lat 34 degrees 54' 32" South  Long 135 degrees 41' 09" East
 AMG: 5621219E 6135651N  (Zone  53 Map  6028 )


Fishery Bay is an uninhabited bay approximately 30 km south of Port Lincoln

Map reference:
 

  Sleaford 6028-3 (1:50,000 topographical map) 


History:

A whaling station at Sleaford Bay appears to have been in operation by the 1837 season when the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register reported that on 1 Nov 1837 the 150 ton brig Siren  (Captain Bell) departed from Port Adelaide for Sleaford Bay, near Port Lincoln 'to take in a cargo of oil from the station there' and was then intended for Hobart (South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register  11 Nov 1837:1 & 3). Hosking dismisses this report as 'probably incorrect' (Hosking 1973:36) but it is considered likely that the 1837 (and earlier?) whaling station may have been a Hobart based operation with no connection to the later operations of the South Australian Company and others during the 1839 and subsequent seasons at Sleaford Bay.

 The Sleaford Bay whaling station was definitely in operation during the 1839 season as a joint venture between the South Australian Company and Messrs John and Stephen Hack and Company. This appears to be as a result of a favourable report given by McFarlane in 1838 as a calving bay where ëthere are a great number of whalesí (Hosking 1973:36). In April the schooner John Pirie (Captain Hay) sailed from Kingscote to Sleaford Bay with supplies, the headsman and whalers for the Sleaford Bay station. In May the cutter Hero (Captain Hutchinson) sailed to Sleaford Bay to await Captain Hart's arrival. Hart was to supervise preparations as Hutchinson collected men and supplies before proceeding to Thistle Island (Hosking 1973:36).

 The Southern Australian  reported in June 1839 that six whales had been taken at Sleaford Bay (Southern Australian 12 June 1839:3) and a total of 1500 gallons of oil and 3 tons of whale bone were reported obtained in the 1839 season (21 Sept 1839 Archives 1000). Hosking suggests only 4 whales were taken at Sleaford Bay in the 1839 season (Hosking 1973:37) and then goes on to say 55 tuns of oil (15,400 gallons) was taken by the time the party disbanded in September when Captain Hart arrived in the Rapid to collect the oil (he was forced to leave 20 tuns which he could not take).

 The Hart, Hagan and Baker Committee (Report on Whaling in South Australia 4 Jan 1842) made the following comments about the 1839-41 seasons at Sleaford Bay:
(1839) 'A new fishery was established at Sleaford Bay; here the untried headsmen being chiefly placed, and proving insufficient, caused much disaffection that more than half the men deserted.' 
(1840) 'A single party was sent to Sleaford Bay, which took 113 tuns of oil.'
(1841) 'Sleaford Bay has not been successful this season, the whales not having set into that Bay in such numbers as in former years. Besides this the party was opposed by a ship from Sydney. The catch there with 3 boats has only been 30 tuns of oil and 1.5 tuns bone value 710 pounds while the expenses being 997 pounds, leaves a loss of 285 pounds upon that station.'
(Hart, Hagan and Baker 1842 reprinted 1921:27, 28 & 30)
see also South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register 4 July 1840 p6 c1, 22 Sept 1840 Supp p1 c3 and  13 Nov 1840 Supp p3 c5

Site Description:

In April 1997 a small group of staff, honours students and volunteers from Flinders University conducted a predisturbance survey of the archaeological material at  Fishery Bay, Sleaford Bay (Bradbury et al 1997). Kostaglou and McCarthy have previously documented the existence of a whaling station at Sleaford Bay (Kostoglou & McCarthy 1991:17-21).

 Fishery Bay has cliffs on both the eastern  and western sides of the bay, a white sandy beach on the northern side and is open to the south east (145 to 175 degrees). The sites are located  on the frontal dune system at the eastern end of the beach  near where a small seasonal creek  flows down to the sea. 

 Unlike Fowlers Bay, Sleaford Bay revealed extensive archaeological evidence of the whaling station in the form of habitation (and storage) sites and a tryworks platform (see Bradbury et al 1997). Again the building sites were largely constructed of local stone but in this case there is far more extensive use of brick in particular in the form of the tryworks floor.

Artefacts:

Another issue which came up was the nature and extent of the archaeological material which lay in the waters in front of the whaling station - an underwater survey by Tim Anson and Nathan Richards revealed a range of  artefactual material including this blue transfer print found underwater. The se artefacts indicate that the seas may have been a convenient receptacle for unwanted rubbish or that material may be regularly washed down by the seasonal creek.

Site conservation and management issues

One of the issues which arose from the work at Sleaford Bay relates to the environmental damage which is occurring at the site - an area of hoop iron is being washed down by and into a seasonal creek which runs at the eastern end of the site (see Fig. 5).

 Finally another site conservation issue - the tryworks brick floor is in an area where the cliff above is eroding down and covering part of the floor - in itself this may assist with the preservation of this part of the site. Unfortunately at the front of the brick floor the sea is aggressively eroding the base of the floor which is steadily falling into the sea (see Fig.6).

Discussion:

It would appear that at Sleaford Bay like some other whaling stations on the South Australian coast two or more different whaling operations were conducted at different times either at the same location or at two locations for which the same name is given. In the case of Sleaford Bay it is considered likely that only one location was used - that of Fishery Bay and it is considered likely that the archaeological evidence at Fishery Bay includes material from both the early (1837) and later (1839-41) periods.

 One of the issue which arises from this work is the level of investment in the different whaling stations - the historical evidence reveals that nearly one thousand pounds was spent at Sleaford Bay in the 1841 season at least part of which may have been expended on relatively expensive building works including such features as the brick floor for the tryworks. The resulting loss of nearly three hundred pounds was one of the contributing factors to the South Australian Company getting out of whaling at a time (in 1841) when Hobart based whaling stations were still making useful economic returns from whaling farther west on the South Australian coastline (in the years 1843 to 1845).

STREAKY BAY 

Date Range:

 1843-46  (Hobart based whaling station)


Location:
 

 Lat  32 degrees 32í00 "  South Long  132 degrees 53í 20" East
 AMG: 395898E 6399995N (Zone 53 Map 5334)


Point Collinson is at the North Western extremity of Streaky Bay on Eyre Peninsula in South Australia.

Map reference:
 

  Collinson 5334-1 (1:50,000 topographical map) 


History:

It is evident from the quote in the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register (16 Dec 1843) and Richard Copping's reminiscences cited above that there was a Hobart based whaling station at Streaky Bay during the 1843 season. This confirmed by the voyages of the 262 ton brigantine Camilla  (Captain Gardiner) which was reported off the Recherche Archipelago in Western Australia bound for Streaky Bay in October 1843 (Sexton 1990:89). The vessel arrived in Hobart in December 1843 and then made another round trip to Streaky Bay arriving back in Hobart on 19 March 1844 (Hobart Town Courier 22 March 1844).
Camilla was back in Streaky Bay in April 1844 and Captain Gardiner described some of the events of 28 April 1844:

 
Went ashore to fetch off some staves that were left last voyage, and the trypots; found the staves taken away by some vessel. I pulled down the huts, and burned the bark; sent the slabs on board for firewood; pulled the pots down, and cleaned them ready for going on board (Hobart Town Courier 2 August 1844)


 Camilla was driven ashore in Streaky Bay on the same day and eventually became a total loss (see Arnott this volume). Captain and Mrs Gardiner and 25 of the Camilla's crew arrived back in Hobart on 10 October 1844 on board the brig Maguasha (Captain George Shepherd) having left some of the crew at Streaky Bay  (Hobart Town Courier 15 October 1844). The schooner Bandicoot  arrived in Streaky Bay at the end of November to load materials from the wreck of the Camilla and three of the crew who had been left behind (Hobart Town Courier 17 December 1844). 

In his unpublished reminiscences Captain James William Robinson made the following comments about Streaky Bay which he visited in the 98 ton brigantine Abeona  in what is assumed to be the 1845 season:-
 

...had to proceed to Streaky Bay, near the Great Australian Bight; where Young had established a shore whaling fishery...The schooner, after landing two boat's crews at Streaky Bay was to go anywhere along the coast, wherever we could find whales, and take the season through...At the end of the season the schooner was to return to Streaky Bay...and come to Hobart. Mr Hungerford, Luttrell and E. Kreamer were headsmen, who were to stop at Streaky Bay. (Robinson 1906:54)
I saw the remains of the old Camilla brig, a little way up the bay. The country near the beach is skirted by low sand ridges, about from thirty to forty feet high. The natives were not allowed to come down off the ridges to the fishery without permission. I landed Hungerford, Luttrell, who had charge with his two boat's crews. Mr E. Kreemer was at the fishery, and two others. I also landed in good health Mrs Lutrell, and her little girl, with all their stores...(Robinson 1906:54)


Some time later Robinson returned to Streaky Bay where he reported that he:
 

found Mr Luttrell and Freeman had got a lot of oil, more than I could carry, so I commenced taking in all the whalebone, and as much oil as I could store. I soon got all the oil on board, and my lady passenger and her child and got all hands on board except three. My instructions from Mr Young was to leave two or three men with the cooper in charge of the oil and fishery, if I could not carry all the oil.
(Robinson 1906:54)


In mid 1845 the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register reported:
 

 Captain Shepherd's party of twenty-five men and three boats, at Streaky Bay, had 
 captured three whales, one of which produced sixteen tons of oil, the three together 
 making an aggregate of forty tons: of which Capt. Irving took in and brought hither 
 thirty tons. The Streaky Bay party had "sighted" twenty five whales, but owing to 
 the long prevalence of extremely boisterous weather, had only captured three fish as 
 already mentioned.
 (South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register 23 July 1845)


It is clear that at least one, and possibly two, whaling stations were in operation at Streaky Bay between, at least, 1843 and 1845. 

Site Description:

In April 1997 a small group of staff, honours students and volunteers from Flinders University conducted a predisturbance survey of the archaeological material at Point Collinson (De Lieuen et al 1997). Kostaglou and McCarthy have previously documented the existence of a whaling station at Point Collinson (Kostoglou & McCarthy 1991:7-10).

The area has a scatter of material including hoop iron, whale bone, ceramic, black glass bottle and clay pipe fragments all of which date to approximately the 1840s. Only one habitation site was found which was a pile of local calcarenite stone and bricks 2.5m by 2 m interestingly with window glass - interestingly because the site is located on the exposed front side of the dune system (in the wind etc) yet is likely to be a habitation site because of the presence of the window glass

Artefacts:

Copper alloy sheathing and sheathing tacks were located at Point Collinson (see Fig. 7). The author has previously noted this type of material at the whaling station site at Yanerbie and Gibbs reports it on the Cheyne Beach site in Western Australia (Gibbs 1995:282 & 485 Plate C.1). The issue which arises from the presence of copper alloy sheathing and tacks is the question of whether the whale boats were drawn up onto the beach or were moored for long periods of time in the water. The presence of sheathing suggests that mooring may have been the preferred option and this has consequences in terms of the extent and nature of underwater remains in the vicinity of whaling stations - in the form of some form of permanent or semi-permanent mooring system which may leave archaeological traces to the present day.

During field surveys in the general area around the Point Collinson site clear evidence of Aboriginal usage of black glass bottles was found at two sites - one seven hundred metres north and another 3 km west of the site (see Fig. 8). This brings up the whole issue of indigenous/white relations at what are clearly the sites of first contact along this whole region of the South Australian coast. Unfortunately the distance of the material from the site, the presence of Edward John Eyre in the area some years before and the fact that that no excavations have been conducted means that no unequivocal evidence of indigenous presence actually at the whaling station site has been located. 

Site conservation and management issues

Parts of the whaling station site at Point Collinson are under threat from the activities of four wheel drive vehicles and their owners who appear to regularly visit the area. Significant amounts of broken glass, ammunition and plastic were observed during the survey work.

Discussion:

The identification of the Point Collinson site as a whaling station in operation during the 1840s on the basis of the archaeological evidence is considered without doubt. However the issue of whether the Point Collinson site is the one and only 'Streaky Bay' whaling station is much more open to question. Kostaglou and McCarthy (1991:11-12) have suggested that there may be another whaling station site at Point de Mole (also within Streaky Bay) where staff of the State Heritage Branch located 'the remains of a stone hut' during a visit in 1996 (Arnott pers comm). The possibility of a third whaling station at the mouth of Acraman Creek (also in Streaky Bay) was suggested by Kostaglou and McCarthy but is considered by the author to be highly unlikely (Kostaglou and McCarthy (1991:13).

One of the interesting points about the historical descriptions of the Streaky Bay whaling station is the presence of at least two women - Mrs Gardiner (wife of Captain Gardiner master of the Camilla during 1844) and Mrs Luttrell (wife of Mr Luttrell who was in charge of one of the whale boats during 1845) as well as Mrs Luttrell's 'little girl'.

CONCLUSION

One of the issues which arises from the preliminary work done on these three whaling stations is the need to look carefully at the historical and archival evidence with two thoughts in mind - the first is that whaling activities, like shipping in the nineteenth century, was conducted at an international and intercolonial level as well as operating within a single colony. As a result much of the archival and newspaper documentation of sites like Fowlers Bay and Streaky Bay exists in Tasmanian archives and newspapers and not in South Australian ones. The second is that because of the way in which much of the whaling research and many of the whaling heritage surveys have been organised in the past on a state by state basis  has meant that the archival evidence has not been linked to the archaeological evidence for certain sites. 

 This work is very much in progress as, apart from the work at Fowlers Bay, most of this preliminary work has been undertaken in the last six months - for the future a significant part of the archival research can only be undertaken in Tasmania at some future date while the drawing up of the site plans, artefact drawings, photographic printing and report writing is ongoing. 

REFERENCES

Austral Archaeology. 1993. Thistle Island Whaling Station excavation report. Unpublished  report, State Heritage Branch, Adelaide. 54 pp.

Bannister

Bradbury, G. Consoli, S. Copland, G. Matthews, S. & Southwood, J. 1997. Field trip  report on Whaling Station Sites on Eyre Peninsula: Fishery Bay. Unpublished  report,  Department of Archaeology, Flinders University, Adelaide. 

Chamberlain, S. 1988. The Hobart Whaling Industry 1830 to 1900. PhD Thesis.  Department of  History. La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC.

Chamberlain, S. 1989. Sealing, whaling and early settlement of Victoria: an annotated  bibliography of  historical sources. Victoria Archaeological survey Occasional  Reports Series No 29. Department of Conservation and the Environment,  Melbourne.

Copping, Capt. R. 1892. Reminiscences of Captain Richard Copping (1821-1892) Special  collections, W.L. Crowther Library, State Library of Tasmania  (CRO.Q.639.22  COP)

Credland, Arthur G. 1988. Captain Richard Copping of Hobart Town. Great Circle.  10(1):22-32.

De Lieuen, C. Nelson, N. Pecanek, M. Philippou, C. & Richards, N. 1997. Point  Collinson Whaling Station. Unpublished report, Department of Archaeology,  Flinders University, Adelaide. 

Evans, K. 1993a. Shore-based whaling in Tasmania Historical Research Project. Volume  1: a social and economic history. Unpublished report , Parks and Wildlife Service,  Hobart, Tasmania. 62pp.

Evans, K. 1993b. Shore-based whaling in Tasmania Historical Research Project. Volume  2: site histories. Unpublished report, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart,  Tasmania. 73pp.

Eyre, E.J. 1845. Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia. Vol 1. T.  and W. Boone. London. 

Gibbs, M. 1995. The historical archaeology of shore based whaling in Western Australia  1836-1879. PhD thesis. Department of Archaeology. University of Western  Australia, Perth. 

Hart, Hagan and Baker. 1842. Report of the Hart, Hagan and Baker Committee (4 Jan  1842) reprinted in 1921 as Report on Whaling in South Australia Proceedings of  the Royal Geographical Society  22:20-34 

Hobart Town Courier 22 March 1844, 2 August 1844 and 15 October 1844

Hosking, W.J. 1973. Whaling in South Australia . B.A.Honours thesis. Department of  History. Flinders University, Adelaide.

Jones, M.D. and Staniforth, M. 1996. Fowlers Bay Whaling Site Archaeological program.  Unpublished report, SA Museum and ANZSES, Adelaide. 46pp.

Kostaglou, P. 1995a.  Shore-based whaling in Tasmania Historical Research Project.  Volume 1: Industry overview and recommendations. Unpublished report, Parks  and Wildlife Service, Hobart, Tasmania. 66pp.

Kostaglou, P. 1995b.  'Shore-based whaling in Tasmania  Historical Research Project.  Volume 2: Results of fieldwork.' Unpublished report , Parks and Wildlife Service,  Hobart, Tasmania. 167pp.

Kostaglou, P. and McCarthy, J. 1991. Whaling and Sealing sites in South Australia.  Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology Special publication No. 6. Perth. 

Parsons, R.H. 1981. Port Lincoln shipping. R.H. Parsons. Magill, SA.

Robinson, Captain James William. 1906. Reminiscences of Captain James William  Robinson (1824-1906) 3 Volumes. Special collections, W.L. Crowther Library,  State Library of Tasmania . (Ref NS 222)

Sexton, Robert T. 1990. Shipping arrivals and departures South Australia 1627-1850.  Roebuck Books. Aranda, ACT. 

South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register  11 Nov 1837 p1c2 & p3c4, 16 Dec 1843  p2c5 and 23 July 1843 p2c4

Southern Australian  12 June 1839 p3c5

Townrow, K. 1997. An archaeological survey of sealing and whaling sites in Victoria.  Heritage Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria.
 



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